The National Corridors Initiative, Inc.
Destination:Freedom

A Weekly North American Transportation Update

For transportation advocates and professionals, journalists,
and elected or appointed officials at all levels of government

Publisher: James P. RePass      E-Zine Editor: Molly McKay
Foreign Editor: David Beale      Webmaster: Dennis Kirkpatrick
 

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July 17, 2010
Vol. 11 No. 30

Copyright © 2010
NCI Inc., All Rights Reserved
Our 11th Newsletter Year

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IN THIS EDITION...   In This Edition...

  News Items…
New England And Eastern Canadian Leaders Vote
   To Create Green Economy, Confront Border Issues
First Stimulus $20 Million Flows To North Carolina
   To Kick Start $545M High-Speed Rail Line
  Stimulus Lines…
U.S. Transportation Secretary LaHood Announces Initial
   $20.3 Million For North Carolina High-Speed Rail
  Equipment Lines…
MBTA Inks Deal With Motive Power Inc. For
   Twenty New Diesel-Electric Locos
 
  Selected Rail Stocks…
  Freight Lines…
Railcar Owners Pull 3,064 Cars Out Of Storage
For Two Rail Freight Companies, Business Growth Is Strong
  Commentary…
The “ARC” Tunnel: An Important Project Far Beyond
   New Jersey And New York
  Editorial…
It Is Time To End “Buy America” And Enact
   “Buy North America”
  Publication Notes …


NEWS OF THE WEEK... News Items...

New England Governors And Eastern Canadian Premieres Meet At Lenox

 

New England And Eastern Canadian Leaders Vote To Create
Green Economy, Confront Border Issues

By DF Staff

LENOX --- Under the gavel of their new Chairman, Massachusetts Governor Deval Patrick, the New England governors and the premiers of the Eastern Canadian provinces met this week in Lenox, Massachusetts, at the historic Cranwell House to debate, and look for solutions to, the region’s economic and transportation challenges.

It was the 34th such conference of its kind of regional leaders in the Northeast.

High on the agenda was the Green Economy, which attending leaders all saw as a potential strength for the knowledge-based Northeastern region, especially when coupled with the tremendous wind power potential in the Maritimes and in New England; even tiny Prince Edward Island is looking to become a major producer of electrical energy through the development of wind, solar, and tidally-driven power generation, as are Nova Scotia, Rhode Island, Maine, Massachusetts, and other states and provinces.

Under Gov. Patrick’s gavel a sense of urgency was obvious, as Governor after Governor and Premier after Premier observed the head start China and Europe have gotten in wind and other alternative power, even though the Northeast region’s wind resources are some of the most powerful on the planet.

Nova Scotia Premier Daryl Dexter, conference co-chair and next year’s host of the annual meeting to be held in Nova Scotia, seconded Patrick’s statements that our region could and should become a leader in Green energy.

However, the Governors and Premiers, as well as key speakers such as Canadian Ambassador to the United States Gary Doer, and American Consul to Eastern Canada Anton Smith, both expressed concern that the “thickening border” between the United States and Canada, brought on by greatly increased security at the Canadian-American border, was hampering both trade and commerce, as are “Buy America” provisions in U.S. procurement regulations that are becoming more widespread, and stringent, as the economies of both countries continue to struggle with the Great Recession.

Transportation and regional rail were not on the agenda this year but became the subject of discussion during the conference, when participants, including delegates as well as Governors, met informally, and a number of governors and premiers pledged to follow up those discussions, working with each other and with advocates for the Green Economy.

The 34th annual meeting focused “on expanding economic opportunities and creating green jobs in the region through renewable energy development, climate change action, energy efficiency, new energy technologies and transportation initiatives, and a discussion between the Governors and Premiers and the Canadian and U.S. Ambassadors on Canada-U.S. relations,” noted the NEGC in its conference announcement.

All Governors except for New Hampshire Gov. Lynch attended, and all premiers save for Robert Ghiz, Premier of Prince Edward Island, who was playing host that day to a live “Regis and Kathy Lee” broadcast from PEI.

Attendees were: Hon. Deval L. Patrick, Governor of Massachusetts (co-chair); Hon. M. Jodi Rell, Governor of Connecticut; Hon. John E. Baldacci, Governor of Maine; Hon. Donald L. Carcieri, Governor of Rhode Island; Hon. James H. Douglas, Governor of Vermont; and Premiers: Hon. Darrell Dexter, Premier of Nova Scotia (co-chair); Hon. Jean Charest, Premier of Quebec; Hon. Shawn Graham, Premier of New Brunswick; Hon. Danny Williams, Premier of Newfoundland and Labrador.

Of the New England Governors, four are retiring this year, Gov. Lynch was recently re-elected, and Gov. Patrick stands for election this Fall. For a full conference agenda go to: www.scics.gc.ca


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First Stimulus $20 Million Flows To North Carolina
To Kick Start $545M High-Speed Rail Line

By DF Staff And From Internet Sources

WASHINGTON--- Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood this week announced that the U.S. Department of Transportation and the State of North Carolina have finalized a grant agreement for $20.3 million, the first installment of the $545 million awarded to the state as part of the President’s Rail Stimulus Program.

“President Obama’s bold vision for high-speed rail is a game changer for U.S. transportation,” said Secretary LaHood. “We’re improving North Carolina’s transportation infrastructure while putting people back to work. That’s a win for everyone.”

North Carolina was one of the major winners in Round One $8 Billion of the rail stimulus program, which is designed not only to put people to work immediately, but to make permanent improvements in transportation infrastructure. The state has long been one of the leaders in understanding the importance of infrastructure in attracting and keeping business. Aside from a first-rate educational system, it has for more than 50 years tuned its development to transportation infrastructure investment, aiming to maximize its competitiveness as a region accessible to, and thereby attractive to, employers and employees. Research Triangle Park, for example, was created as a nexus of commerce linking major North Carolina cities in the 1960’s as the Interstate Highway System was being designed and built. The state has taken the same tack in developing its commuter and intercity rail systems, and individual cities have likewise invested in light rail systems to boost downtown development.

“North Carolina has planned well and is set to build a world-class transportation network that will link the Tar Heel State to Washington, D.C. and the Northeast through high-speed rail,” said Federal Railroad Administrator Joseph C. Szabo.

“North Carolina has been a leader nationally in restoring passenger rail as a viable transportation alternative and we look forward to pursuing that goal in partnership with the federal government, beginning right now with this grant,” said Gov. Bev Perdue.

“Today’s announcement means North Carolina can begin work on developing a first-class, high-speed passenger rail that will make traveling across our great state easier and more efficient,” Senator Kay Hagan said. “High-speed rail will help ease congestion on our roads and lessen our dependence on foreign oil. Most importantly, this project will create jobs—my number one priority.”

“North Carolina is part of an elite group as one of only seven states receiving high-speed rail corridor development funding,” Rep. David Price said. “As part of more than $500 million in Recovery Act investments being made to modernize North Carolina’s rail system and increase rail speeds, this funding will further what must be our highest priority: putting North Carolinians to work”

The North Carolina Department of Transportation will use the $20.3 million to refurbish passenger coaches and locomotives to expand rail service across North Carolina. The Department of Transportation’s Federal Railroad Administration is actively working with the North Carolina Department of Transportation on additional grant agreements for the remaining $525 million to further develop the state’s high-speed rail corridor.


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STIMULUS LINES... Stimulus Lines...  

U.S. Transportation Secretary LaHood Announces Initial $20.3 Million
For North Carolina High-Speed Rail

 

U.S. Department of Transportation
Office of Public Affairs
Washington, D.C.
www.dot.gov/affairs/briefing.htm
News

FRA 10-10
Contact: Robert Kulat
Tel: 202-493-6024
Monday, July 12, 2010

The Award Is The First Installment On The $545 Million
From The American Recovery And Reinvestment Act (ARRA)

WASHINGTON, DC – JULY 12—

Last week it was Maine

Amount Represents First Installment on $545 Million from Recovery Act

In January, President Obama announced that North Carolina was awarded $545 million in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds to continue its development of high-speed intercity rail. Today, Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood announced that the U.S. Department of Transportation and the State of North Carolina have finalized a grant agreement for $20.3 million, the first installment of the $545 million awarded to the state.

“President Obama’s bold vision for high-speed rail is a game changer for U.S. transportation,” said Secretary LaHood. “We’re improving North Carolina’s transportation infrastructure while putting people back to work. That’s a win for everyone.”

“North Carolina has planned well and is set to build a world-class transportation network that will link the Tar Heel State to Washington, D.C. and the Northeast through high-speed rail,” said Federal Railroad Administrator Joseph C. Szabo.

“North Carolina has been a leader nationally in restoring passenger rail as a viable transportation alternative and we look forward to pursuing that goal in partnership with the federal government, beginning right now with this grant,” said Gov. Bev Perdue.

“Today’s announcement means North Carolina can begin work on developing a first-class, high-speed passenger rail that will make traveling across our great state easier and more efficient,” Senator Kay Hagan said. “High-speed rail will help ease congestion on our roads and lessen our dependence on foreign oil. Most importantly, this project will create jobs—my number one priority.”

“North Carolina is part of an elite group as one of only seven states receiving high-speed rail corridor development funding,” Rep. David Price said. “As part of more than $500 million in Recovery Act investments being made to modernize North Carolina’s rail system and increase rail speeds, this funding will further what must be our highest priority: putting North Carolinians to work”

The North Carolina Department of Transportation will use the $20.3 million to refurbish passenger coaches and locomotives to expand rail service across North Carolina. The Department of Transportation’s Federal Railroad Administration is actively working with the North Carolina Department of Transportation on additional grant agreements for the remaining $525 million to further develop the state’s high-speed rail corridor.

Nationally, ARRA provided an $8 billion down payment for high speed rail.

 

American high-speed rail gets moving in North Carolina

http://fastlane.dot.gov/2010/07/american-highspeed-rail-gets-to-work-in-north-carolina.html

Last week I blogged about finalizing a high-speed rail grant agreement with Maine that will extend the Northeast corridor up to Brunswick. Yesterday, we finalized another high-speed rail grant agreement, this one with North Carolina.

Yesterday’s agreement will help North Carolina complete mechanical upgrades and refurbish its passenger coaches and locomotives. This will allow the state to further expand service on its increasingly popular Charlotte-Raleigh run and begin preparing its leg of the Southeast High-Speed Rail corridor.

Banner - Southeast HSR

With these agreements in Maine and North Carolina, American high-speed rail is rolling out of the station and gaining momentum.

And what it’s delivering to North Carolina is, as Senator Kay Hagan said, “first-class, high-speed passenger rail that will make traveling across our great state easier and more efficient, reduce congestion on our roads, and lessen dependence on foreign oil.”

“Most importantly,” she added, “This project will create jobs.”

That sentiment was echoed emphatically by Rep. David Price, who said, “This funding will further what must be our highest priority: putting North Carolinians to work.” 

North Carolina Governor Bev Perdue also put employment benefits at the top of her list, saying, “For our citizens, it means jobs, economic development, reduced congestion and a cleaner environment.”

Artist Concept Acela Express

Image: Blog

Artist Concept

And they are right about that.

The initial $20.3 million creates 34 new jobs for mechanical workers who maintain the trains and for train engineers and conductors on North Carolina’s expanded service.

But that’s just the beginning. North Carolina’s $545 million total share of high-speed and intercity passenger rail funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act will create or maintain as many as 4,800 private sector jobs in the state over the next four years, with 1,000 of those expected this year alone as ready-to-go projects get under way. Those jobs will come from more than 30 projects in 11 counties, all part of improving North Carolina’s rail service.

Then there is the economic development that will follow the rail line as companies choose to locate where high-speed rail service allows easy travel between business centers. The North Carolina Department of Transportation expects more than 19,000 new jobs as rail service attracts this kind of development.

Of course, there are other some pretty good transportation benefits as well. And North Carolinians seem to appreciate those, too, as the state recently added midday service on the Charlotte-Raleigh route, and plans to expand even more soon.


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EQUIPMENT LINES... Equipment Lines...  

MBTA Inks Deal With Motive Power Inc.
For Twenty New Diesel-Electric Locos

By DF Staff And From Internet Sources

BOSTON --- Facing growing demand for better service in commuter rail as automotive commuting becomes more expensive and time-consuming on the congested highways of Central and Eastern New England, the MassDOT Board of Directors this past week approved the purchase of 20 new diesel-electric locomotives from Motive Power Inc. of Boise, Idaho at a cost not to exceed $114.63 million.

MBTA General Manager Richard Davey said “…the acquisition of new locomotives is a high priority for the T, and is a critical element in improving commuter rail performance and customer service. “In line with this priority, we have worked hard to expedite the procurement process.”

Accelerating the delivery of new locomotives will have an immediate positive impact on MBTA Commuter Rail operations, fleet performance, and service delivery, the MBTA said. The contract will allow the MBTA to remove the 20 oldest and least reliable locomotives from service, eliminating associated mechanical failures.

The MBTA operates a fleet of 80 revenue service locomotives, the oldest originally manufactured between 1978 and 1980. Overhauled in 1989, these locomotives were programmed for retirement in 2005, the MBTA said. Locomotives generally have a useful life of 25 years. By FY2013, 68% of the locomotive fleet will be scheduled for retirement based on a 25 year service life.

In addition to realizing increased reliability, the MBTA will significantly reduce locomotive emissions. The new units will be required to meet “Tier 3” emission standards as regulated by the EPA. Advancing the delivery of this cleaner technology will reduce fuel consumption by approximately 730,000 gallons per year and will reduce the following in emissions per year; particulate Matter - 26 tons, Hydrocarbons - 38 tons, and Oxides of Nitrogen - by 924 tons. Also, the reduction in fuel consumption will save an estimated 1.5 million dollars annually.

The fuel savings is one of several significant cost benefits the MBTA will realize with the addition of these new technology locomotives.

Motive Power has advised the MBTA that the proposed contract will create or sustain 1,246 union jobs. The breakdown is roughly 186 machinists, 374 welders, 374 mechanics, and 187 electricians, among others. Locally, Motive Power will utilize the Providence and Worcester Railroad facility for pre-delivery inspection, preparation, and commissioning support services. The P&W shop will also provide a location to establish a parts inventory and conduct warranty repairs. The Motive Power relationship with the P&W in Worcester will assist them in retaining 150 employees, the MBTA said.


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STOCKS...  Selected Rail Stocks...

Source: MarketWatch.com

   This
Week
Previous
Week
Canadian National (CNI)59.2258.64
Canadian Pacific (CP) 56.3656.15
CSX (CSX)50.2751.76
Genessee & Wyoming (GWR)36.9838.31
Kansas City Southern (KSU)34.7237.24
Norfolk Southern (NSC)53.3953.81
Providence & Worcester(PWX)12.40 12.00
Union Pacific (UNP)68.9171.70


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FREIGHT LINES... Freight Lines...  

Railcar Owners Pull 3,064 Cars Out Of Storage

The Journal Of Commerce Online

Freight rail business has been picking up since the middle of 2009, but recovery is still slow.

The article reports that North American railcar leasing fleets, shippers and railroads pulled 3,064 cars out of storage during June but still had 23.7 percent of their freight hauling equipment sitting idle.

The Association of American Railroads said that as of July 1 it figured 365,279 freight cars had gone without a revenue load for at least 60 days.

Most cars taken out of storage will be put into revenue service, industry analysts say, but not all. Car owners are selling more railcars than usual to scrap dealers when metal prices are high enough.

Manufacturers are building some new railcars such as covered hoppers for special cargo needs, but do not expect to get orders for new intermodal well cars until late this year. Some are rebuilding unwanted well cars that were originally built to haul 48-ft. domestic containers, and either cutting them down for 40-ft. marine intermodal shipments or stretching them to carry the popular 53-ft jumbo domestic boxes.

The AAR said railcars in storage have now declined for 12 straight months.


Return to index
 

For Two Rail Freight Companies,
Business Growth Is Strong

Despite A Sluggish Economy, Numbers For These Companies Are Climbing.

By DF Staff From Internet Sources

A story in Business Week reports that Railroad CSX is “Ahead of the Bell,” expecting to show strong earnings in the second quarter of 2010, driven by higher prices and a continued modest improvement in the U.S. economy.

CSX, the third largest railroad in the country, is benefiting from a strengthening economy and improved efficiency and cost controls, said Deutsche Bank analyst Justin Yagerman.

“Railroads have proven their ability to increase efficiency through means including higher train speeds and spending less time parked at terminals. But Yagerman thinks railroads are also expanding train lengths as volumes improve, which can also keep their costs down because they are tugging more freight without adding more employees.”

For the first six months of the year, traffic on U.S. railroads rose 7.4 percent compared with the same period in 2009. But traffic still isn’t as robust as in 2008.

A similar report about Genesee & Wyoming Inc (GWR) in RTTNews last week said that traffic for June rose 15.4% from the same month last year and traffic for the second quarter grew 16.8%.

Genesee & Wyoming is based in Greenwich, Connecticut, and deals in hauling commodities – Coal, Coke & Ores, farm and food products such as grain shipments in Australia Region which increased last year as did steel shipments in New York/Ohio/Pennsylvania and Southern Regions.

The company noted that all other traffic, including Minerals & Stone, Pulp & Paper, Lumber & Forest Products, Chemicals-Plastics, Petroleum Products and Autos & Auto Parts increased by a net 1,746 carloads.


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COMMENTARY... Commentary...  

The “ARC” Tunnel: An Important Project
Far Beyond New Jersey And New York

By David Peter Alan

A controversy about how additional rail capacity should reach New York City from New Jersey has raged for several years and been the subject of numerous articles in this newsletter. New Jersey Transit (NJT) wants to build a tunnel that would extend to a dead-end “deep-cavern” terminal 180 feet below 34th Street in Manhattan. Only New Jersey Transit trains would have access to this new tunnel. Advocates for balanced transportation and increased investment in rail infrastructure are vehemently opposed to this plan in favor of the original ARC proposal which called for the new Hudson River tunnels to connect directly to Penn Station and then on to Grand Central Terminal via a through tunnel across the city. Recently, several elected leaders and newspaper columnists are now expressing their support for this plan which would be true to its name, “Access to the Region’s Core.

With proposed enhancements for the plan to convert the historic post office building across Eighth Avenue from Penn Station into a westward expansion of the existing station to be called the Moynihan Station (named after the late Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan), advocates now call for the “Moynihan/Penn Station First” alternative. It would improve trans-Hudson operating flexibility and redundancy, provide increased Penn Station capacity for both NJT and Amtrak, avoid the connectivity and access problems of a deep-cavern terminal and, eventually, allow expansion to the East Side of Midtown Manhattan using a previously-vetted plan.

Although rider advocates and transit managers still use the term ARC, NJT has more recently called its plan the “Mass Transit Tunnel,” apparently abandoning the idea of providing Access to the Region’s Core.

NJT treats the project as a “local” one, focused solely on moving more Garden State commuters to a Manhattan location in the midtown area, somewhere in the vicinity of Penn Station. In actual fact, the outcome of the controversy over this project will have regional, and even national, implications far beyond New Jersey and New York City.

A Letter to the Editor by Vincent Reiner, published here on July 6th, demonstrates the extended impact that new rail tunnels into Manhattan will have, depending on where they terminate. Mr. Reiner writes from Fort Eustis, Virginia, a military post that enjoys a strong reputation on the transportation scene. It is not far from Newport News, an Amtrak station served by trains that go through Penn Station, New York on the way to Boston.

The fact that a reader so far from New York City and New Jersey is concerned with this project says as much as the actual content of his comments. In fact, operational flexibility and redundancy, access to the new tracks for Amtrak, and additional capacity that both Amtrak and NJT can use are all issues of regional and national importance.

New England is currently connected to points south and west of New York City by only the two original tracks from Penn Station under the Hudson River, which have been in service for 100 years. Every week-end and many late nights, one track is taken out of service for maintenance, so only a single track links these two important regions on the nation’s busiest passenger rail line. During these times, eastbound and westbound trains must take turns in half-hour time slots. New Englanders are concerned about this, and several organizations based there are part of the advocates’ alliance. Other members of the alliance who want the new tunnels to go directly to Penn Station represent places as far from New York as Florida, Louisiana and the Mid-west region. They understand the importance of these issues, since trains from Penn Station go to Miami, New Orleans and Chicago. Other organizations, based between New York and these outlying places are also part of the alliance.

The push for “Moynihan/Penn Station First” also enjoys support from such national organizations as the National Association of Railroad Passengers (NARP), the Rail Users’ Network (RUN) and the National Corridors Initiative (NCI), including endorsements by D:F publisher James P. RePass and editor Molly McKay. Every rail rider in the eastern half of the nation has reason to care about where the new tunnels enter into Manhattan, and Mr. Reiner is no exception.

Circumstances have changed since the heady days when every transit agency could ask for essentially unlimited funds for grandiose projects and expect the request to be granted. The Federal Government and the States are running out of money. Schools, libraries and public institutions are being reduced or eliminated all over the nation. So is transit. Meanwhile, Amtrak is not faring much better under the Democrats than it did under the Republicans. Politically, the most important feature of the Moynihan/Penn Station First alternative is that it will save at least $3 billion, money that New Jersey would be hard-pressed to find elsewhere.

Mr. Reiner opened his letter with the question: “Do we REALLY need S-I-X tunnels coming to and/or bypassing Penn Station??” (emphasis in original). The answer is an equally-emphatic NO!! Two new trans-Hudson tunnel tracks, if they go to an enhanced Moynihan/Penn Station, will provide the flexibility and redundancy that Amtrak and NJT both need. An appropriately enhanced Moynihan/Penn Station will also allow significantly-improved usage of tracks and platforms. This improvement in utilization can add the enhanced peak-hour capacity that NJT and Amtrak will need for the next twenty years, without spending billions of scarce dollars to dig a deep-cavern terminal that will actually lengthen commute time, due to the time required to traverse the vertical distance (180 feet; about twenty stories) between platform level and street level.

In addition, the Moynihan/Penn Station First alternative allows for eventual expansion to the East Side. The original plans for Penn Station and Grand Central Terminal provided for this. The two “deep caverns” espoused by NJT and the MTA cannot be joined for functional through service. That would be an operational nightmare with the current proposals. Also, New York City’s Water Tunnel #1 is in the way. That is why the NJT project was moved further west and tail tracks eliminated from its design.

Surely there are technical details that must be resolved, if new through-running operations commence where they do not exist today. Such operation between Trenton and New Haven is feasible, as demonstrated by “football special” trains that operated last fall. For other combinations, equipment must be retrofitted for compatibility and new equipment must have certain features, but this is far less expensive than building separate tunnels for NJT and Amtrak. It is also possible to amend rules to provide for new through-running operations, as Mr. Reiner mentions. That is also an inexpensive process.

Rider advocates in the region have pushed for through-running for years. New York advocate George Haikalis formed the Regional Rail Working Group, an alliance of advocacy organizations, expressly for that purpose. Mr. Reiner can enjoy through-operation by getting on an Amtrak train at Newport News and going all the way to Boston any day he wishes. Like him, the rider advocates of the region want to see more through-running, and believe that the technical and operational challenges can be surmounted.

Adoption of the Moynihan/Penn Station First Alternative is the first step toward increased flexibility, redundancy, expansion to the East Side (and a potential second route to New England) and through-running on a regional basis. Such an operation would take more people where they want to go and save money by improving operational efficiency, which would render the proposed deep-cavern terminal unnecessary.

To use Mr. Reiner’s word, that would be FANTASTIC!!

David Peter Alan is Chair of the Lackawanna Coalition, one of the rider advocacy organizations that has endorsed the Moynihan/Penn Station First Alternative. The Lackawanna Coalition is also a member of the Regional Rail Working Group.


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EDITORIAL... Editorial...  

It Is Time To End “Buy America”
And Enact “Buy North America”

 

It is an election year in the United States, and therefore an unlikely time for any politician to advocate ending the “Buy America” program that has grown more and more widespread as part of the Federal procurement process.

But that is exactly what Congress should do.

“Buy America” hurts both of our major trading partners Canada and Mexico, while doing little to actually “protect” American jobs. Indeed, study after study has shown that free trade increases everyone’s prosperity in the long run, by driving innovation and commerce.

In the short run, American workers do indeed have to be protected against predatory labor practices and lax environmental laws, but the enemy there is not Canada or Mexico: it is Asia, which kills thousands of its coal miners every year to provide us with cheap steel, and other manufactured items. Mexican labor is indeed far cheaper than American --- but most of those jobs are gone from America already. We need to build smarter and greener, and “Buy America” does nothing to promote that. Indeed, it has the opposite effect, by stifling the exchange of technologies, products, and ideas that might advance that goal.

The economies of Canada and America are totally interdependent. It is time to stop pretending otherwise, and end “Buy America” as applied to our neighbors on this continent, while ensuring that negatively affected/displaced U.S. workers are compensated. We are only shooting ourselves in the foot when we do so.


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END NOTES...  Publication Notes...

Copyright © 2010 National Corridors Initiative, Inc. as a compilation work and original content. Permission is granted to reproduce content provided acknowledgements to NCI are given. Return links to the NCI web site are encouraged and appreciated. Color Name Courtesy of Doug Alexander. Content reproduced by NCI remain the copyrights of the original publishers.

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